E.O. No. 292, Administrative Code of 1987 Book V Title I-A - Civil Service Commission


Administrative Code of 1987 TOC

Book V

Title I Constitutional Commissions



Section 1. Declaration of Policy. - The State shall insure and promote the Constitutional mandate that appointments in the Civil Service shall be made only according to merit and fitness; that the Civil Service Commission, as the central personnel agency of the Government shall establish a career service, adopt measures to promote morale, efficiency, integrity, responsiveness, and courtesy in the civil service, strengthen the merit and rewards system, integrate all human resources development programs for all levels and ranks, and institutionalize a management climate conducive to public accountability; that public office is a public trust and public officers and employees must at all times be accountable to the people; and that personnel functions shall be decentralized, delegating the corresponding authority to the departments, offices and agencies where such functions can be effectively performed.

Section 2. Duties and Responsibilities of Public Officers and Employees. - Public Officers and employees shall have the duties, responsibilities, and accountability provided in Chapter 9, Book I of this Code.

Section 3. Terms and Conditions of Employment. - The terms and conditions of employment of all government employees, including those in government-owned or controlled corporations with original charters, shall be fixed by law. The terms and conditions of employment which are not fixed by law may be the subject of negotiation between duly recognized employees' organizations and appropriate government authorities.

Section 4. Compensation. - The Congress shall provide for the standardization of compensation of government officials and employees including those in government-owned or controlled corporations with original charters, taking into account the nature of the responsibilities pertaining to, and the qualifications required for the position concerned.

Section 5. Definitions of Terms. - As used in this title, the following shall be construed thus:

(1) Agency means any bureau, office, commission, administration, board, committee, institute, corporation with original charter, whether performing governmental or proprietary function, or any other unit of the National Government, as well as provincial, city or municipal government, except as hereinafter otherwise provided.

(2) Appointing officer is the person or body authorized by law to make appointments in the Philippine Civil Service.

(3) Class includes all positions in the government service that are sufficiently similar as to duties and responsibilities and require similar qualifications that can be given the same title and salary and for all administrative and compensation purposes, be treated alike.

(4) Commission refers to the Civil Service Commission.

(5) Chairman refers to the Chairman of the Commission.

(6) Commissioner refers to either of the two other members of the Commission.

(7) Department includes any of the executive departments or entities having the category of a department including the judiciary, Commission on Elections and Commission on Audit.

(8) Eligible refers to a person who obtains a passing grade in a civil service examination or is granted a civil service eligibility and whose name is entered in the register of eligibles.

(9) Examination refers to a civil service examination conducted by the Commission and its regional offices or by other departments or agencies with the assistance of the Commission, or in coordination or jointly with it, and those that it may delegate to departments and agencies pursuant to this Title, or those that may have been delegated by law.

(10) Form refers to those prescribed by the Civil Service Commission.


Section 6. Scope of the Civil Service. - (1) The Civil Service embraces all branches, subdivisions, instrumentalities, and agencies of the Government, including government-owned or controlled corporations with original charters.

(2) Positions in the Civil Service shall be classified into career service and non-career service.

Section 7. Career Service. - The Career Service shall be characterized by (1) entrance based on merit and fitness to be determined as far as practicable by competitive examination, or based on highly technical qualifications; (2) opportunity for advancement to higher career positions; and (3) security of tenure.

The Career Service shall include:

(1) Open Career positions for appointment to which prior qualification in an appropriate examination is required;

(2) Closed Career positions which are scientific, or highly technical in nature; these include the faculty and academic staff of state colleges and universities, and scientific and technical positions in scientific or research institutions which shall establish and maintain their own merit systems;

(3) Positions in the Career Executive Service; namely, Undersecretary, Assistant Secretary, Bureau Director, Assistant Bureau Director, Regional Director, Assistant Regional Director, Chief of Department Service and other officers of equivalent rank as may be identified by the Career Executive Service Board, all of whom are appointed by the President;

(4) Career officers, other than those in the Career Executive Service, who are appointed by the President, such as the Foreign Service Officers in the Department of Foreign Affairs;

(5) Commissioned officers and enlisted men of the Armed Forces which shall maintain a separate merit system;

(6) Personnel of government-owned or controlled corporations, whether performing governmental or proprietary functions, who do not fall under the non-career service; and

(7) Permanent laborers, whether skilled, semi-skilled, or unskilled.

Section 8. Classes of Positions in the Career Service. - (1) Classes of positions in the career service appointment to which requires examinations shall be grouped into three major levels as follows:

(a) The first level shall include clerical, trades, crafts, and custodial service positions which involve non-professional or subprofessional work in a non-supervisory or supervisory capacity requiring less than four years of collegiate studies;

(b) The second level shall include professional, technical, and scientific positions which involve professional, technical, or scientific work in a non-supervisory or supervisory capacity requiring at least four years of college work up to Division Chief level; and

(c) The third level shall cover positions in the Career Executive Service.

(2) Except as herein otherwise provided, entrance to the first two levels shall be through competitive examinations, which shall be open to those inside and outside the service who meet the minimum qualification requirements. Entrance to a higher level does not require previous qualification in the lower level. Entrance to the third level shall be prescribed by the Career Executive Service Board.

(3) Within the same level, no civil service examination shall be required for promotion to a higher position in one or more related occupation groups. A candidate for promotion should, however, have previously passed the examination for that level.

Section 9. Non-Career Service. - The Non-Career Service shall be characterized by (1) entrance on bases other than those of the usual tests of merit and fitness utilized for the career service; and (2) tenure which is limited to a period specified by law, or which is coterminous with that of the appointing authority or subject to his pleasure, or which is limited to the duration of a particular project for which purpose employment was made.

The Non-Career Service shall include:

(1) Elective officials and their personal or confidential staff;

(2) Secretaries and other officials of Cabinet rank who hold their positions at the pleasure of the President and their personal or confidential staff(s);

(3) Chairman and members of commissions and boards with fixed terms of office and their personal or confidential staff;

(4) Contractual personnel or those whose employment in the government is in accordance with a special contract to undertake a specific work or job, requiring special or technical skills not available in the employing agency, to be accomplished within a specific period, which in no case shall exceed one year, and performs or accomplishes the specific work or job, under his own responsibility with a minimum of direction and supervision from the hiring agency; and

(5) Emergency and seasonal personnel.


Section 10. Composition. - The Commission shall be composed of a Chairman and two Commissioners who shall be natural born citizens of the Philippines and, at the time of their appointment, at least thirty-five years of age, with proven capacity for public administration, and must not have been candidates for any elective position in the elections immediately preceding their appointment.

Section 11. Appointment of Chairman and Commissioners. - The Chairman and the Commissioners shall be appointed by the President with the consent of the Commission on Appointments for a term of seven years without reappointment. Of the first appointed, the Chairman shall hold office for seven years, a Commissioner for five years, and another Commissioner for three years, without reappointment. Appointment to any vacancy shall be only for the unexpired term of the predecessor. In no case shall any Member be appointed or designated in a temporary or acting capacity.

Section 12. Powers and Functions. - The Commission shall have the following powers and functions:

(1) Administer and enforce the constitutional and statutory provisions on the merit system for all levels and ranks in the Civil Service;

(2) Prescribe, amend and enforce rules and regulations for carrying into effect the provisions of the Civil Service Law and other pertinent laws;

(3) Promulgate policies, standards and guidelines for the Civil Service and adopt plans and programs to promote economical, efficient and effective personnel administration in the government;

(4) Formulate policies and regulations for the administration, maintenance and implementation of position classification and compensation and set standards for the establishment, allocation and reallocation of pay scales, classes and positions;

(5) Render opinion and rulings on all personnel and other Civil Service matters which shall be binding on all heads of departments, offices and agencies and which may be brought to the Supreme Court on certiorari;

(6) Appoint and discipline its officials and employees in accordance with law and exercise control and supervision over the activities of the Commission;

(7) Control, supervise and coordinate Civil Service examinations. Any entity or official in government may be called upon by the Commission to assist in the preparation and conduct of said examinations including security, use of buildings and facilities as well as personnel and transportation of examination materials which shall be exempt from inspection regulations;

(8) Prescribe all forms for Civil Service examinations, appointments, reports and such other forms as may be required by law, rules and regulations:

(9) Declare positions in the Civil Service as may properly be primarily confidential, highly technical or policy determining;

(10) Formulate, administer and evaluate programs relative to the development and retention of qualified and competent work force in the public service;

(11) Hear and decide administrative cases instituted by or brought before it directly or on appeal, including contested appointments, and review decisions and actions of its offices and of the agencies attached to it. Officials and employees who fail to comply with such decisions, orders, or rulings shall be liable for contempt of the Commission. Its decisions, orders, or rulings shall be final and executory. Such decisions, orders, or rulings may be brought to the Supreme Court on certiorari by the aggrieved party within thirty (30) days from receipt of a copy thereof;

(12) Issue subpoena and subpoena duces tecum for the production of documents and records pertinent to investigation and inquiries conducted by it in accordance with its authority conferred by the Constitution and pertinent laws;

(13) Advise the President on all matters involving personnel management in the government service and submit to the President an annual report on the personnel programs;

(14) Take appropriate action on all appointments and other personnel matters in the Civil Service including extension of Service beyond retirement age;

(15) Inspect and audit the personnel actions and programs of the departments, agencies, bureaus, offices, local government units and other instrumentalities of the government including government-owned or controlled corporations; conduct periodic review of the decisions and actions of offices or officials to whom authority has been delegated by the Commission as well as the conduct of the officials and the employees in these offices and apply appropriate sanctions when necessary;

(16) Delegate authority for the performance of any function to departments, agencies and offices where such functions may be effectively performed;

(17) Administer the retirement program for government officials and employees, and accredit government services and evaluate qualifications for retirement;

(18) Keep and maintain personnel records of all officials and employees in the Civil Service; and

(19) Perform all functions properly belonging to a central personnel agency and such other functions as may be provided by law.

Section 13. Duties and Responsibilities of the Chairman. - Subject to policies and rules adopted by the Commission, the Chairman shall:

(1) Direct all operations of the Commission;

(2) Establish procedures for the effective operations of the Commission;

(3) Transmit to the President rules and regulations, and other guidelines adopted by the Chairman which require Presidential attention including annual and other periodic reports;

(4) Issue appointments to, and enforce decisions on administrative discipline involving officials and employees of the Commission;

(5) Delegate authority for the performance of any function to officials and employees of the Commission;

(6) Approve and submit the annual and supplemental budget of the Commission; and

(7) Perform such other functions as may be provided by law.

Section 14. Membership of the Chairman in Boards. - The Chairman shall be a member of the Board of Directors or of other governing bodies of government entities whose functions affect the career development, employment status, rights, privileges, and welfare of government officials and employees, such as the Government Service Insurance System, Foreign Service Board, Foreign Trade Service Board, National Board for Teachers, and such other similar boards as may be created by law.

Section 15. Duties and Responsibilities of the Members of the Commission. - Jointly with the Chairman, the two (2) Commissioners shall be responsible for the effective exercise of the rule-making and adjudicative functions of the Commission. They shall likewise perform such functions as may be delegated by the Commission. In case of the absence of the Chairman owing to illness or other cause, the senior member shall perform the functions of the Chairman.

Section 16. Offices in the Commission. - The Commission shall have the following offices:

(1) The Office of the Executive Director headed by an Executive Director, with a Deputy Executive Director shall implement policies, standards, rules and regulations promulgated by the Commission; coordinate the programs of the offices of the Commission and render periodic reports on their operations, and perform such other functions as may be assigned by the Commission.

(2) The Merit System Protection Board composed of a Chairman and two (2) members shall have the following functions:

(a) Hear and decide on appeal administrative cases involving officials and employees of the Civil Service. Its decision shall be final except those involving dismissal or separation from the service which may be appealed to the Commission;

(b) Hear and decide cases brought before it on appeal by officials and employees who feel aggrieved by the determination of appointing authorities involving personnel actions and violations of the merit system. The decision of the Board shall be final except those involving division chiefs or officials of higher ranks which may be appealed to the Commission;

(c) Directly take cognizance of complaints affecting functions of the Commission, those which are unacted upon by the agencies, and such other complaints which require direct action of the Board in the interest of justice;

(d) Administer oaths, issue subpoena and subpoena duces tecum, take testimony in any investigation or inquiry, punish for contempt in accordance with the same procedures and penalties prescribed in the Rules of Court; and

(e) Promulgate rules and regulations to carry out the functions of the Board subject to the approval of the Commission.

(3) The Office of Legal Affairs shall provide the Chairman with legal advice and assistance; render counselling services; undertake legal studies and researches; prepare opinions and rulings in the interpretation and application of the Civil Service law, rules and regulations; prosecute violations of such law, rules and regulations; and represent the Commission before any Court or tribunal.

(4) The Office of Planning and Management shall formulate development plans, programs and projects; undertake research and studies on the different aspects of public personnel management; administer management improvement programs; and provide fiscal and budgetary services.

(5) The Central Administrative Office shall provide the Commission with personnel, financial, logistics and other basic support services.

(6) The Office of Central Personnel Records shall formulate and implement policies, standards, rules and regulations pertaining to personnel records maintenance, security, control and disposal; provide storage and extension services; and provide and maintain library services.

(7) The Office of Position Classification and Compensation shall formulate and implement policies, standards, rules and regulations relative to the administration of position classification and compensation.

(8) The Office of Recruitment, Examination and Placement shall provide leadership and assistance in developing and implementing the overall Commission programs relating to recruitment, examination and placement, and formulate policies, standards, rules and regulations for the proper implementation of the Commission's examination and placement programs.

(9) The Office of Career Systems and Standards shall provide leadership and assistance in the formulation and evaluation of personnel systems and standards relative to performance appraisal, merit promotion, and employee incentive benefits and awards.

(10) The Office of Human Resource Development shall provide leadership and assistance in the development and retention of qualified and efficient work force in the Civil Service; formulate standards for training and staff development; administer service-wide scholarship programs; develop training literature and materials; coordinate and integrate all training activities and evaluate training programs.

(11) The Office of Personnel Inspection and Audit shall develop policies, standards, rules and regulations for the effective conduct or inspection and audit of personnel and personnel management programs and the exercise of delegated authority; provide technical and advisory services to civil Service Regional Offices and government agencies in the implementation of their personnel programs and evaluation systems.

(12) The Office of Personnel Relations shall provide leadership and assistance in the development and implementation of policies, standards, rules and regulations in the accreditation of employee associations or organizations and in the adjustment and settlement of employee grievances and management of employee disputes.

(13) The Office of Corporate Affairs shall formulate and implement policies, standards, rules and regulations governing corporate officials and employees in the areas of recruitment, examination, placement, career development, merit and awards systems, position classification and compensation, performing appraisal, employee welfare and benefits, discipline and other aspects of personnel management on the basis of comparable industry practices.

(14) The Office of Retirement Administration shall be responsible for the enforcement of the constitutional and statutory provisions, relative to retirement and the regulation for the effective implementation of the retirement of government officials and employees.

(15) The Regional and Field Offices. - The Commission shall have not less than thirteen (13) Regional offices each to be headed by a Director, and such field offices as may be needed, each to be headed by an official with at least the rank of an Assistant Director. Each Regional Office shall have the following functions:

(a) Enforce Civil Service law and rules, policies, standards on personnel management within their respective jurisdiction;

(b) Provide technical advice and assistance to government offices and agencies regarding personnel administration; and

(c) Perform such other functions as may be delegated by the Commission.

Section 17. Organizational Structure. - Each office of the Commission shall be headed by a Director with at least one (1) Assistant Director, and may have such divisions as are necessary to carry out their respective functions. As an independent constitutional body, the Commission may effect changes in the organization as the need arises.


Section 18. Civil Service Assistance to Department and Agencies. - Each Secretary or head of office, agency, government-owned or controlled corporation with original charter and local government shall be responsible for personnel administration in his office which shall be in accordance with the provision relating to civil service embodied in the Constitution, this Title and the rules, principles, standards, guidelines and regulations established by the Commission. The Civil Service Commission shall, whenever it deems it in the interest of the public service, organize in each department, office, agency, government-owned or controlled corporation, and provincial and city government a Civil Service Staff which shall be headed by an officer of the Commission. The necessary staff personnel and office facilities and equipment shall be provided by the department, government-owned or controlled corporation or local government where the staff is established but the Commission may augment these with its own. The Staff shall serve as the principal liaison between the Civil Service and Department concerned and shall perform the following specific functions and those functions which may hereafter be assigned to it by the Commission.

(1) Provide technical assistance in all aspects of personnel management;

(2) Monitor and audit periodically the personnel practices and performance of the Department or agency concerned as well as those of public officers and employees thereat;

(3) Determine agency compliance with Civil Service Law and rules; and

(4) In the performance of these functions, the staff shall welcome and receive from the public any suggestions, observations and complaints pertaining to the conduct of public officers and employees.

In the performance of their functions, the units so organized shall avail of the technical assistance and guidelines of the Civil Service Commission.

Section 19. Council of Personnel Officers. - There shall be a Council of Personnel Officers to be composed of Chief personnel officers of the different executive departments and of agencies with the category of department that the Chairman of the Commission shall select for membership. Except for its Executive Officer who shall be designated by the Chairman from among the appropriate officials in the Civil Service Commission, the Council is authorized to elect such other officers from among its members and to fix its own rules or procedures concerning attendance at meetings, approval of policy declaration, and other business matters. Provisions for necessary facilities and clerical assistance for the Council shall be made in the annual budget of the Commission.

The Council shall have the following functions:

(1) Offer advice, upon request of the Secretary of a Department or the Commission, in developing constructive policies, standards, procedures, and programs as well as on matters relating to the improvement of personnel methods and to the solution of personnel problems confronting the various departments and agencies of the government;

(2) Promote among the departments and agencies, through study and discussion, uniform and consistent interpretation and application of personnel policies; and

(3) Serve as a clearing house of information and stimulate the use of methods of personnel management that will contribute most to good government.

Section 20. Inspection and Audit. - The Commission, through its designated representatives, shall conduct a periodic inspection and audit of the personnel management program of each department, agency, province or city, in order to: (a) determine compliance with the Civil Service law, rules and standards; (b) review discharge of delegated authority; (c) make an adequate evaluation of the progress made and problems encountered in the conduct of the merit system in the national and local governments; (d) give advice and provide assistance in developing constructive policies, standards and procedures, and (e) stimulate improvement in all areas of personnel management.

Periodic inspection and audit will include an appraisal of personnel management operations and activities relative to: (a) formulation and issuance of personnel policy; (b) recruitment and selection of employees; (c) personnel action and employment status; (d) career and employee development; (e) performance evaluation system; (f) employee suggestions and incentive award; (g) employee relations and services; (h) discipline; (i) personnel records and reporting; and (j) programs evaluation.


Section 21. Recruitment and Selection of Employees. - (1) Opportunity for government employment shall be open to all qualified citizens and positive efforts shall be exerted to attract the best qualified to enter the service. Employees shall be selected on the basis of fitness to perform the duties and assume the responsibilities of the positions.

(2) When a vacancy occurs in a position in the first level of the Career Service as defined in Section 6, the employees in the department who occupy the next lower positions in the occupational group under which the vacant position is classified, and in other functionally related occupational groups and who are competent, qualified and with the appropriate civil service eligibility shall be considered for promotion.

(3) When a vacancy occurs in a position in the second level of the Career Service as defined in Section 8, the employees in the government service who occupy the next lower positions in the occupational group under which the vacant position is classified and in other functionally related occupational groups and who are competent, qualified and with the appropriate civil service eligibility shall be considered for promotion.

(4) For purposes of this Section, each department or agency shall evolve its own screening process, which may include tests of fitness, in accordance with standards and guidelines set by the Commission. Promotion boards shall be formed to formulate criteria for evaluation, conduct tests or interviews, and make systematic assessment of training experience.

(5) If the vacancy is not filled by promotion as provided herein the same shall be filled by transfer of present employees in the government service, by reinstatement, by re-employment of persons separated through reduction in force, or by appointment of persons with the civil service eligibility appropriate to the positions.

(6) A qualified next-in-rank employee shall have the right to appeal initially to the Secretaries or heads of agencies or instrumentalities including government-owned or controlled corporations with original charters, then to the Merit System Protection Board, and finally to the Civil Service Commission an appointment made in favor of another employee if the appellant is not satisfied with the written special reason or reason given by the appointing authority for such appointment; Provided, however, that the decision of the Civil Service Commission may be reviewed on certiorari only by the Supreme Court within thirty (30) days from receipt of the decision of the aggrieved party. For purposes of this Section, "qualified next-in-rank" refers to an employee appointed on a permanent basis to a position previously determined to be next-in-rank and who meets the requirements for appointment thereto as previously determined by the appointing authority and approved by the Commission.

(7) Qualification in an appropriate examination shall be required for appointment to positions in the first and second levels in the career service in accordance with the Civil Service rules, except as otherwise provided in this Title: Provided, That whenever there is a civil service eligible actually available for appointment, no person who is not such an eligible shall be appointed even in a temporary capacity to any vacant position in the career service in the government or in any government-owned or controlled corporation with original charter, except when the immediate filling of the vacancy is urgently required in the public interest, or when the vacancy is not permanent, in which cases temporary appointments of non-eligibles may be made in the absence of eligibles actually and immediately available.

(8) The appropriate examinations herein referred to shall be those given by the Commission and the different agencies: Provided, however, That nothing herein shall affect those eligibilities acquired prior to the effectivity of this Civil Service Law: Provided, further, That a person with a civil service eligibility acquired by successfully passing an examination shall be qualified for a position requiring a lower eligibility if he possesses the other requirements for appointments to such position.

Section 22. Qualification Standards. - (1) A qualification standard expresses the minimum requirements for a class of positions in terms of education, training and experience, civil service eligibility, physical fitness, and other qualities required for successful performance. The degree of qualifications of an officer or employee shall be determined by the appointing authority on the basis of the qualification standard for the particular position.

Qualification standards shall be used as basis for civil service examinations for positions in the career service, as guides in appointment and other personnel actions, in the adjudication of protested appointments, in determining training needs, and as aid in the inspection and audit of the agencies personnel work programs.

It shall be administered in such manner as to continually provide incentives to officers and employees towards professional growth and foster the career system in the government service.

(2) The establishment, administration and maintenance of qualification standards shall be the responsibility of the department or agency, with the assistance and approval of the Civil Service Commission and in consultation with the Wage and Position Classification Office.

Section 23. Release of Examination Results. - The results of any particular civil service examination held in a number of places on the same date shall be released simultaneously.

Section 24. Register of Eligibles. - The names of the competitors who pass an examination shall be entered in a register of eligibles arranged in the order of their general ratings and containing such information as the Commission may deem necessary.

Section 25. Cultural Communities. - In line with the national policy to facilitate the integration of the members of cultural communities and accelerate the development of the areas occupied by them, the Commission shall give special civil service examinations to qualify them for appointment in the civil service.

Section 26. Personnel Actions. - All appointments in the career service shall be made only according to merit and fitness, to be determined as far as practicable by competitive examinations. A non-eligible shall not be appointed to any position in the civil service whenever there is a civil service eligible actually available for and ready to accept appointment.

As used in this Title, any action denoting the movement or progress of personnel in the civil service shall be known as personnel action. Such action shall include appointment through certification, promotion, transfer, reinstatement, re-employment, detail, reassignment, demotion, and separation. All personnel actions shall be in accordance with such rules, standards, and regulations as may be promulgated by the Commission.

(1) Appointment through certification. An appointment through certification to a position in the civil service, except as herein otherwise provided, shall be issued to a person who has been selected from a list of qualified persons certified by the Commission from an appropriate register of eligibles, and who meets all the other requirements of the position.

All such persons must serve a probationary period of six months following their original appointment and shall undergo a thorough character investigation in order to acquire permanent civil service status. A probationer may be dropped from the service for unsatisfactory conduct or want of capacity any time before the expiration of the probationary period: Provided, That such action is appealable to the Commission.

(2) Promotion. A promotion is a movement from one position to another with an increase in duties and responsibilities as authorized by law and usually accompanied by an increase in pay. The movement may be from one department or agency to another, or from one organizational unit to another in the same department or agency.

(3) Transfer. A transfer is a movement from one position to another which is of equivalent rank, level, or salary without break in service involving the issuance of an appointment.

It shall not be considered disciplinary when made in the interest of public service, in which case, the employee concerned shall be informed of the reasons therefor. If the employee believes that there is no justification for the transfer, he may appeal his case to the Commission.

The transfer may be from one department or agency to another or from one organizational unit to another in the same department or agency: Provided, however, That any movement from the non-career service to the career service shall not be considered a transfer.

(4) Reinstatement. Any person who has been permanently appointed to a position in the career service and who has, through no delinquence or misconduct, been separated therefrom, may be reinstated to a position in the same level for which he is qualified.

(5) Reemployment. Names of persons who have been appointed permanently to positions in the career service and who have been separated as a result of reduction in force or reorganization, shall be entered in a list from which selection for reemployment shall be made.

(6) Detail. A detail is the movement of an employee from one agency to another without the issuance of an appointment and shall be allowed, only for a limited period in the case of employees occupying professional, technical and scientific positions. If the employee believes that there is no justification for the detail, he may appeal his case to the Commission. Pending appeal, the decision to detail the employee shall be executory unless otherwise ordered by the Commission.

(7) Reassignment. An employee may be reassigned from one organizational unit to another in the same agency: Provided, That such reassignment shall not involve a reduction in rank, status or salary.

Section 27. Employment Status. - Appointment in the career service shall be permanent or temporary.

(1) Permanent status. A permanent appointment shall be issued to a person who meets all the requirements for the positions to which he is being appointed, including the appropriate eligibility prescribed, in accordance with the provisions of law, rules and standards promulgated in pursuance thereof.

(2) Temporary appointment. In the absence of appropriate eligibles and it becomes necessary in the public interest to fill a vacancy, a temporary appointment shall be issued to a person who meets all the requirements for the position to which he is being appointed except the appropriate civil service eligibility: Provided, That such temporary appointment shall not exceed twelve months, but the appointee may be replaced sooner if a qualified civil service eligible becomes available.

Section 28. Salary increase or Adjustment. - Adjustments in salaries as a result of increase in pay levels or upgrading of positions which do not involve a change in qualification requirements shall not require new appointments except that copies of the salary adjustment notices shall be submitted to the Commission for record purposes.

Section 29. Reduction in Force. - Whenever it becomes necessary because of lack of work or funds or due to a change in the scope or nature of an agency's program, or as a result of reorganization, to reduce the staff of any department or agency, those in the same group or class of positions in one or more agencies within the particular department or agency wherein the reduction is to be effected, shall be reasonably compared in terms of relative fitness, efficiency and length of service, and those found to be least qualified for the remaining positions shall be laid off.

Section 30. Career and Personnel Development. - The development and retention of a competent and efficient work force in the public service is a primary concern of government. It shall be the policy of the government that a continuing program of career and personnel development be established for all government employees at all levels. An integrated national plan for career and personnel development shall serve as the basis for all career and personnel development activities in the government.

Section 31. Career and Personnel Development Plans. - Each department or agency shall prepare a career and personnel development plan which shall be integrated into a national plan by the Commission. Such career and personnel development plans which shall include provisions on merit promotions, performance evaluation, in-service training, including overseas and local scholarships and training grants, job rotation, suggestions and incentive award systems, and such other provisions for employees' health, welfare, counseling, recreation and similar services.

Section 32. Merit Promotion Plans. - Each department or agency shall establish promotion plans which shall be administered in accordance with the provisions of the Civil Service law and the rules, regulations and standards to be promulgated by the Commission. Such plans shall include provisions for a definite screening process, which may include tests of fitness, in accordance with standards and guidelines set by the Commission. Promotion Boards may be organized subject to criteria drawn by the Commission.

Section 33. Performance Evaluation System. - There shall be established a performance evaluation system, which shall be administered in accordance with rules, regulations and standards, promulgated by the Commission for all officers and employees in the career service. Such performance evaluation system shall be administered in such manner as to continually foster the improvement of individual employee efficiency and organizational effectiveness.

Each department or agency may, after consultation with the Commission, establish and use one or more performance evaluation plans appropriate to the various groups of positions in the department or agency concerned. No performance evaluation shall be given, or used as a basis for personnel action, except under an approved performance evaluation plan: Provided, That each employee shall be informed periodically by his supervisor of his performance evaluation.

Section 34. Responsibility for Training. - The Commission shall be responsible for the coordination and integration of a continuing program of personnel development for all government personnel in the first and second levels.

Central staff agencies and specialized institutes shall conduct continuing centralized training for staff specialists from the different agencies. However, in those cases where there is sufficient number of participants to warrant training at department or agency or local government levels, such central staff agencies and specialized institutes shall render the necessary assistance, and consultative services.

To avoid duplication of effort and overlapping of training functions, the following functional responsibilities are assigned:

(1) Public and private colleges and universities and similar institutions shall be encouraged to organize and carry out continuing programs of executive development.

(2) The Commission, the Commission on Audit, the Department of Budget and Management, the General Services Administration, and other central staff agencies shall conduct centralized training and assist in the training program of the Departments or agencies along their respective functional areas of specialization.

(3) In coordination with the Commission, the Department of Local Government and Community Development shall undertake local government training programs.

(4) In coordination with the Commission, each department or agency, province or city shall establish, maintain and promote a systematic plan of action for personnel training at all levels in accordance with standards laid down by the Commission. It shall maintain appropriate training staffs and make full use of available training facilities.

Whenever it deems it necessary, the Commission shall take the initiative in undertaking programs for personnel development.

Section 35. Employee Suggestions and incentive Award System. - There shall be established a government-wide employee suggestions and incentive awards system which shall be administered under such rules, regulations, and standards as may be promulgated by the Commission.

In accordance with rules, regulations, and standards promulgated by the Commission, the President or the head of each department or agency is authorized to incur whatever necessary expenses involved in the honorary recognition of subordinate officers and employees of the government who by their suggestions, inventions, superior accomplishment, and other personal efforts contribute to the efficiency, economy, or other improvement of government operations, or who perform such other extraordinary acts or services in the public interest in connection with, or in relation to, their official employment.

Section 36. Personnel Relations. - (1) It shall be the concern of the Commission to provide leadership and assistance in developing employee relations programs in the department or agencies.

(2) Every Secretary or head of agency shall take all proper steps toward the creation of an atmosphere conducive to good supervisor-employee relations and the improvement of employee morale.

Section 37. Complaints and Grievances. - Employees shall have the right to present their complaints or grievances to management and have them adjudicated as expeditiously as possible in the best interest of the agency, the government as a whole, and the employee concerned. Such complaint or grievances shall be resolved at the lowest possible level in the department or agency, as the case may be, and the employee shall have the right to appeal such decision to higher authorities.

Each department or agency shall promulgate rules and regulations governing expeditious, fair and equitable adjustment of employees' complaints or grievances in accordance with the policies enunciated by the Commission.

In case any dispute remains unresolved after exhausting all the available remedies under existing laws and procedures, the parties may jointly refer the dispute to the Public Sector Labor Management Council constituted under section 46, for appropriate action.


Section 38. Coverage. - (1) All government employees, including those in government-owned or controlled corporations with original charters, can form, join or assist employees' organizations of their own choosing for the furtherance and protection of their interests. They can also form, in conjunction with appropriate government authorities, labor-management committees, work councils and other forms of workers' participation schemes to achieve the same objectives.

(2) The provisions of this Chapter shall not apply to the members of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, including police officers, policemen, firemen and jail guards.

Section 39. Ineligibility of High-Level Employees to Join Rank-and-File Employees' Organization. - High-level employees whose functions are normally considered as policy-making or managerial or whose duties are of a highly confidential nature shall not be eligible to join the organization of rank-and-file government employees.

Section 40. Protection of the Right to Organize. - (1) Government employees shall not be discriminated against in respect of their employment by reason of their membership in employees' organizations or participation in the normal activities of their organizations. Their employment shall not be subject to the condition that they shall not join or shall relinquish their membership in the employees' organizations.

(2) Government authorities shall not interfere in the establishment, functioning or administration of government employees' organizations through acts designed to place such organizations under the control of government authority.

Section 41. Registration of Employees' Organization. - Government employees' organizations shall register with the Civil Service Commission and the Department of Labor and Employment. The application shall be filed with the Bureau of Labor Relations of the Department which shall process the same in accordance with the provisions of the Labor Code of the Philippines. Applications may also be filed with the Regional Offices of the Department of Labor and Employment which shall immediately transmit the said applications to the Bureau of Labor Relations within three (3) days from receipt thereof.

Section 42. Certificate of Registration. - Upon arrival of the application, a registration certificate shall be issued to the organization recognizing it as a legitimate employees' organization with the right to represent its members and undertake activities to further and defend its interests. The corresponding certificates of registration shall be jointly approved by the Chairman of the Civil Service Commission and the Secretary of Labor and Employment.

Section 43. Appropriate Organizational Unit. - The appropriate organizational unit shall be the employer's unit consisting of rank-and-file employees unless circumstances otherwise require.

Section 44. Sole and Exclusive Employees' Representatives. - (1) The duly registered employees' organization having the support of the majority of the employees in the appropriate organizational unit shall be designated as the sole and exclusive representative of the employees.

(2) A duly registered employees' organization shall be accorded voluntary recognition upon a showing that no other employees' organization is registered or is seeking registration, based on the records of the Bureau of Labor Relations, and that the said organization has the majority support of the rank-and-file employees in the organizational unit.

(3) Where there are two or more duly registered employees' organizations in the appropriate organizational unit, the Bureau of Labor Relations shall, upon petition, order the conduct of a certification election and shall certify the winner as the exclusive representative of the rank-and-file employees in said organizational unit.

Section 45. The Public Sector Labor-Management Council. - A Public Sector Labor-Management Council is hereby constituted to be composed of the following: The Chairman of the Civil Service Commission, as Chairman; the Secretary of Labor and Employment, as Vice-Chairman; and the Secretary of Finance, the Secretary of Justice and the Secretary of Budget and Management, as members.

The Council shall implement and administer the provisions of this Chapter. For this purpose, the Council shall promulgate the necessary rules and regulations to implement this Chapter.

Section 46. Discipline: General Provisions. - (a) No officer or employee in the Civil Service shall be suspended or dismissed except for cause as provided by law and after due process.

(b) The following shall be grounds for disciplinary action:

(1) Dishonesty;

(2) Oppression;

(3) Neglect of duty;

(4) Misconduct;

(5) Disgraceful and immoral conduct;

(6) Being notoriously undesirable;

(7) Discourtesy in the course of official duties;

(8) Inefficiency and incompetence in the performance of official duties;

(9) Receiving for personal use of a fee, gift or other valuable thing in the course of official duties or in connection therewith when such fee, gift, or other valuable thing is given by any person in the hope or expectation of receiving favor or better treatment than that accorded other persons, or committing acts punishable under the anti-graft laws;

(10) Conviction of a crime involving moral turpitude;

(11) Improper or unauthorized solicitation of contributions from subordinate employees and by teachers or school officials from school children;

(12) Violation of existing Civil Service Law and rules or reasonable office regulations;

(13) Falsification of official document;

(14) Frequent unauthorized absences or tardiness in reporting for duty, loafing or frequently unauthorized absence from duty during regular office hours;

(15) Habitual drunkenness;

(16) Gambling prohibited by law;

(17) Refusal to perform official duty or render overtime service;

(18) Disgraceful, immoral or dishonest conduct prior to entering the service;

(19) Physical or mental incapacity or disability due to immoral or vicious habits;

(20) Borrowing money by superior officers from subordinates or lending by subordinates to superior officers;

(21) Lending money at usurious rates or interest;

(22) Willful failure to pay just debts or willful failure to pay taxes due to the government;

(23) Contracting loans of money or other property from persons with whom the office of the employee concerned has business relations;

(24) Pursuit of private business, vocation or profession without the permission required by Civil Service rules and regulations;

(25) Insubordination;

(26) Engaging directly or indirectly in partisan political activities by one holding a non-political office;

(27) Conduct prejudicial to the best interest of the service;

(28) Lobbying for personal interest or gain in legislative halls and offices without authority;

(29) Promoting the sale of tickets in behalf of private enterprises that are not intended for charitable or public welfare purposes and even in the latter cases if there is no prior authority;

(30) Nepotism as defined in Section 60 of this Title.

(c) Except when initiated by the disciplining authority, no complaint against a civil service official or employee shall be given due course unless the same is in writing and subscribed and sworn to by the complainant.

(d) In meeting out punishment, the same penalties shall be imposed for similar offenses and only one penalty shall be imposed in each case. The disciplining authority may impose the penalty of removal from the service, demotion in rank, suspension for not more than one year without pay, fine in an amount not exceeding six months' salary, or reprimand.

Section 47. Disciplinary Jurisdiction. - (1) The Commission shall decide upon appeal all administrative disciplinary cases involving the imposition of a penalty of suspension for more than thirty days, or fine in an amount exceeding thirty days' salary, demotion in rank or salary or transfer, removal or dismissal from office. A complaint may be filed directly with the Commission by a private citizen against a government official or employee in which case it may hear and decide the case or it may deputize any department or agency or official or group of officials to conduct the investigation. The results of the investigation shall be submitted to the Commission with recommendation as to the penalty to be imposed or other action to be taken.

(2) The Secretaries and heads of agencies and instrumentalities, provinces, cities and municipalities shall have jurisdiction to investigate and decide matters involving disciplinary action against officers and employees under their jurisdiction. Their decisions shall be final in case the penalty imposed is suspension for not more than thirty days or fine in an amount not exceeding thirty days', salary. In case the decision rendered by a bureau or office head is appealable to the Commission, the same may be initially appealed to the department and finally to the Commission and pending appeal, the same shall be executory except when the penalty is removal, in which case the same shall be executory only after confirmation by the Secretary concerned.

(3) An investigation may be entrusted to regional director or similar officials who shall make the necessary report and recommendation to the chief of bureau or office or department within the period specified in Paragraph (4) of the following Section.

(4) An appeal shall not stop the decision from being executory, and in case the penalty is suspension or removal, the respondent shall be considered as having been under preventive suspension during the pendency of the appeal in the event he wins an appeal.

Section 48. Procedure in Administrative Cases Against Non-Presidential Appointees. - (1) Administrative proceedings may be commenced against a subordinate officer or employee by the Secretary or head of office of equivalent rank, or head of local government, or chiefs of agencies, or regional directors, or upon sworn, written complaint of any other person.

(2) In the case of a complaint filed by any other persons, the complainant shall submit sworn statements covering his testimony and those of his witnesses together with his documentary evidence. If on the basis of such papers a prima facie case is found not to exist, the disciplining authority shall dismiss the case. If a prima facie case exists, he shall notify the respondent in writing, of the charges against the latter, to which shall be attached copies of the complaint, sworn statements and other documents submitted, and the respondent shall be allowed not less than seventy-two hours after receipt of the complaint to answer the charges in writing under oath, together with supporting sworn statements and documents, in which he shall indicate whether or not he elects a formal investigation if his answer is not considered satisfactory. If the answer is found satisfactory, the disciplining authority shall dismiss the case.

(3) Although a respondent does not request a formal investigation, one shall nevertheless be conducted when from the allegations of the complaint and the answer of the respondent, including the supporting documents, the merits of the case cannot be decided judiciously without conducting such an investigation.

(4) The investigation shall be held not earlier than five days nor later than ten days from the date of receipt of respondent's answer by the disciplining authority, and shall be finished within thirty days from the filing of the charges, unless the period is extended by the Commission in meritorious cases. The decision shall be rendered by the disciplining authority within thirty days from the termination of the investigation or submission of the report of the investigator, which report shall be submitted within fifteen days from the conclusion of the investigation.

(5) The direct evidence for the complainant and the respondent shall consist of the sworn statement and documents submitted in support of the complaint or answer, as the case may be, without prejudice to the presentation of additional evidence deemed necessary but was unavailable at the time of the filing of the complaint or answer, upon which the cross-examination, by respondent and the complainant, respectively, shall be based. Following cross-examination, there may be redirect and recross-examination.

(6) Either party may avail himself of the services of counsel and may require the attendance of witnesses and the production of documentary evidence in his favor through the compulsory process of subpoena or subpoena duces tecum.

(7) The investigation shall be conducted only for the purpose of ascertaining the truth and without necessarily adhering to technical rules applicable in judicial proceedings. It shall be conducted by the disciplining authority concerned or his authorized representative.

The phrase "any other party" shall be understood to be a complainant other than those referred to in subsection (a) hereof.

Section 49. Appeals. - (1) Appeals, where allowable, shall be made by the party adversely affected by the decision within fifteen days from receipt of the decision unless a petition for reconsideration is seasonably filed, which petition shall be decided within fifteen days. Notice of the appeal shall be filed with the disciplining office, which shall forward the records of the case, together with the notice of appeal, to the appellate authority within fifteen days from filing of the notice of appeal, with its comment, if any. The notice of appeal shall specifically state the date of the decision appealed from and the date of receipt thereof. It shall also specifically set forth clearly the grounds relied upon for excepting from the decision.

(2) A petition for reconsideration shall be based only on any of the following grounds: (a) new evidence has been discovered which materially affects the decision rendered; (b) the decision is not supported by the evidence on record; or (c) error of law or irregularities have been committed which are prejudicial to the interest of the respondent: Provided, That only one petition for reconsideration shall be entertained.

Section 50. Summary Proceedings. - No formal investigation is necessary and the respondent may be immediately removed or dismissed if any of the following circumstances is present:

(1) When the charge is serious and the evidence of guilt is strong;

(2) When the respondent is a recidivist or has been repeatedly charged and there is reasonable ground to believe that he is guilty of the present charge; and

(3) When the respondent is notoriously undesirable.

Resort to summary proceedings by the disciplining authority shall be done with utmost objectivity and impartiality to the end that no injustice is committed: Provided, That removal or dismissal except those by the President, himself or upon his order, may be appealed to the Commission.

Section 51. Preventive Suspension. - The proper disciplining authority may preventively suspend any subordinate officer or employee under his authority pending an investigation, if the charge against such officer or employee involves dishonesty, oppression or grave misconduct, or neglect in the performance of duty, or if there are reasons to believe that the respondent is guilty of charges which would warrant his removal from the service.

Section 52. Lifting of Preventive Suspension Pending Administrative Investigation. - When the administrative case against the officer or employee under preventive suspension is not finally decided by the disciplining authority within the period of ninety (90) days after the date of suspension of the respondent who is not a presidential appointee, the respondent shall be automatically reinstated in the service: Provided, That when the delay in the disposition of the case is due to the fault, negligence or petition of the respondent, the period of delay shall not be counted in computing the period of suspension herein provided.

Section 53. Removal of Administrative Penalties or Disabilities. - In meritorious cases and upon recommendation of the Commission, the President may commute or remove administrative penalties or disabilities imposed upon officers or employees in disciplinary cases, subject to such terms and conditions as he may impose in the interest of the service.


Section 54. Limitation on Appointment. - (1) No elective official shall be eligible for appointment or designation in any capacity to any public office or position during his tenure.

(2) No candidate who has lost in any election shall, within one year after election, be appointed to any office in the Government or any government-owned or controlled corporations or in any of its subsidiaries.

(3) Unless otherwise allowed by law or by the primary functions of his position, no appointive official shall hold any other office or employment in the Government or any subdivision, agency or instrumentality thereof, including government-owned or controlled corporations or their subsidiaries.

Section 55. Political Activity. - No officer or employee in the Civil Service including members of the Armed Forces, shall engage directly or indirectly in any partisan political activity or take part in any election except to vote nor shall he use his official authority or influence to coerce the political activity of any other person or body. Nothing herein provided shall be understood to prevent any officer or employee from expressing his views on current political problems or issues, or from mentioning the names of candidates for public office whom he supports: Provided, That public officers and employees holding political offices may take part in political and electoral activities but it shall be unlawful for them to solicit contributions from their subordinates or subject them to any of the acts involving subordinates prohibited in the Election Code.

Section 56. Additional or Double Compensation. - No elective or appointive public officer or employee shall receive additional or double compensation unless specifically authorized by law nor accept without the consent of the President, any present, emolument, office, or title of any kind from any foreign state.

Pensions and gratuities shall not be considered as additional, double, or indirect compensation.

Section 57. Limitations on Employment of Laborers. - Laborers, whether skilled, semi-skilled or unskilled, shall not be assigned to perform clerical duties.

Section 58. Prohibition on Detail or Reassignment. - No detail or reassignment whatever shall be made within three (3) months before any election.

Section 59. Nepotism. - (1) All appointments in the national, provincial, city and municipal governments or in any branch or instrumentality thereof, including government-owned or controlled corporations, made in favor of a relative of the appointing or recommending authority, or of the chief of the bureau or office, or of the persons exercising immediate supervision over him, are hereby prohibited.

As used in this Section, the word "relative" and members of the family referred to are those related within the third degree either or consanguinity or of affinity.

(2) The following are exempted from the operation of the rules on nepotism: (a) persons employed in a confidential capacity, (b) teachers, (c) physicians, and (d) members of the Armed Forces of the Philippines: Provided, however, That in each particular instance full report of such appointment shall be made to the Commission.

The restriction mentioned in subsection (1) shall not be applicable to the case of a member of any family who, after his or her appointment to any position in an office or bureau, contracts marriage with someone in the same office or bureau, in which event the employment or retention therein of both husband and wife may be allowed.

(3) In order to give immediate effect to these provisions, cases of previous appointments which are in contravention hereof shall be corrected by transfer, and pending such transfer, no promotion or salary increase shall be allowed in favor of the relative or relatives who are appointed in violation of these provisions.


Section 60. Leave of Absence. - Officers and employees in the Civil Service shall be entitled to leave of absence, with or without pay, as may be provided by law and the rules and regulations of the Civil Service Commission in the interest of the service.


Section 61. Examining Committee, Special Examiners and Special Investigators. - Subject to approval by the proper head of a department or agency, the Commission may select suitable persons in the government service to act as members of examining committees, special examiners or special investigators. Such persons shall be designated examiners or investigators of the Commission and shall perform such duties as the Commission may require, and in the performance of such duties they shall be under its exclusive control. Examining committees, special examiners or special investigators so designated may be given allowances or per diems for their services, to be paid out of the funds of, and at a rate to be determined by, the Commission.

Section 62. Fees. - The Commission shall collect and charge fees for civil service examinations, certifications of civil service ratings, service records, and other civil service matters, training courses, seminars, workshops in personnel management and other civil service matters. For this purpose, the Commission shall prescribe standard and reasonable rates for such examinations, certifications, training courses, seminars, and workshops: Provided, That no examination fees shall be collected in examinations given for the selection of scholars.

Section 63. Income. - The income of the Commission from fees, costs for services it may assess and levy, and such other proceeds generated in the performance of its functions shall be directly utilized by the Commission for its expenses.

Section 64. Authority of Officers to Administer Oaths, Take Testimony, Prosecute and Defend Cases in Court. - Members of the Commission, chiefs of offices, and other officers and employees of the Commission designated in writing by the Chairman may administer such oath as may be necessary in the transactions of official business and administer oaths and take testimony in connection with any authorized investigation. Attorneys of the Commission may prosecute and defend cases in connection with the functions of the Commission before any court or tribunal.

Section 65. Liability of Appointing Authority. - No person employed in the Civil Service in violation of the Civil Service Law and rules shall be entitled to receive pay from the government; but the appointing authority responsible for such unlawful employment shall be personally liable for the pay that would have accrued had the employment been lawful, and the disbursing officials shall make payment to the employee of such amount from the salary of the officers so liable.

Section 66. Liability of Disbursing Officers. - Except as may otherwise be provided by law, it shall be unlawful for a treasurer or other fiscal officer to draw or retain from salary due an officer or employee any amount for contribution or payment of obligations other than those due the government or its instrumentalities.

Section 67. Penal Provision. - Whoever makes any appointment or employs any person in violation of any provision of this Title or the rules made thereunder or whoever commits fraud, deceit or intentional misrepresentation of material facts concerning other civil service matters, or whoever violates, refuses or neglects to comply with any of such provisions or rules, shall upon conviction be punished by a fine not exceeding one thousand pesos or by imprisonment not exceeding six (6) months, or both such fine and imprisonment in the discretion of the court.